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Generalized neuropathies are Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA called polyneuropathies. I will use these terms interchangeably in Neuropathy 101. All nerves that supply muscles and the skin are comprised of microscopic fibers that carry the (electrical) information along the nerve.

You may understand this by thinking of all the individual wires inside the main cable that goes Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA your computer printer. Most axons are ensheathed in fatty tissue called myelin. Myelin is required for the rapid transmission of signals along the axons. Myelin is analogous to the rubber insulation around wires. Whether a neuropathy is axonal or demyelinating has implications for medical work-up and treatment options.

Nerve conduction studies (NCS) are required to distinguish between these two types of neuropathies. Axonal neuropathies are more common than demyelinationg neuropathies. The following discussion is for general informational purposes only and is not meant to pfizer pfe the reader with specific medical advice.

Please consult with your personal antidote, or with a neurologist, for specific advice, guidance and information regarding your particular circumstances. Generalized peripheral neuropathy and polyneuropathy are terms that describe disorders arising from diffuse disease of the peripheral nerves, usually manifested by weakness, numbness, and autonomic (e.

Mononeuropathy refers to focal involvement of a single nerve, usually due to a local cause such as trauma, compression, or entrapment. Peripheral neuropathy is a less specific term that is frequently used interchangeably with polyneuropathy, but can also refer to multiple motivation topic (mononeuritis multiplex).

Polyneuropathy is a specific term that refers to a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves, with the distal (longest) nerves usually affected most prominently. The symptoms can start at any age and at times there may be no symptoms. Hereditary forms of neuropathy often are detectable during childhood or adolescence although sometimes symptoms are not reported until years later. Acquired neuropathies, for example diabetic neuropathy, more typically start later in life.

Neuropathies can start and progress rapidly in certain cases, such as in Guillain Barre Syndrome where weakness progresses over days to a few weeks. In other cases the symptoms may xy 46 insidious in onset and progress slowly, such as neuropathy caused by B12 deficiency and diabetes.

Neuropathy may affect the myelin covering (Schwann cell insulation) of nerves, the axons (nerve cell extensions), or both and it may affect motor nerves, sensory nerves, and autonomics, individually or in combination. Sensory symptoms, such as numbness and tingling, typically precede motor symptoms such as weakness.

Individuals with neuropathy typically present with slowly progressive distal sensory loss and dysesthesias (spontaneous abnormal sensations) such as pins-and-needles, burning or shooting pain in the feet, and mild balance problems. As neuropathies progress there is more proximal involvement, mild weakness of the lower legs and hand symptoms may begin.

Hereditary neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, are usually not associated with pain or tingling but are associated Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA slowly progressive loss of sensation, strength, and balance.

Cranial neuropathies affect the nerves that control eye movements, facial strength, facial sensation, hearing, swallowing, and pupillary constriction. A comprehensive neurologic history elucidating typical symptoms and possible underlying medical causes and a comprehensive neurologic exam in search of sensory changes, weakness, reflex loss and balance problems is the first step in evaluating a suspected neuropathy.

Often a diagnostic test called an EMG (electromyogram) with nerve conduction studies is performed to clarify the type and severity of neuropathy and localize Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA entrapment or compression of the nerves. In certain cases, a nerve Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA may also be requested for diagnostic clarity. In cases of acute auto-immune or inflammatory neuropathies, such as Guillain Barre Syndrome, a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) may be d ribose. Laboratory investigations in search of systemic causes of neuropathy will also be requested and may screen for the following:Medications and certain toxins may also be implicated in the Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA causes of neuropathy and can include:Treatment miami johnson aimed at treating the underlying cause of a neuropathy where one can be identified (e.

Treatment may also Amikacin Sulfate Injection (amikacin sulfate)- FDA immunosuppressant therapies (e. Physical therapy evaluation is important in patients with significant weakness.

Appropriate use of ankle-foot orthoses, splints, and walking assistance devices can significantly improve lifestyle in the face of significant disability.

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