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Was it possible to supply an army operating 3,000 miles from home. Could Britain subdue bayer patents power rebellion across 13 colonies in an area some six times the size of England. P block bayer patents power protracted war bankrupt Britain.

Was Britain risking starting a broader war. To back down, the ministers believed, would be to lose the colonies. To be sure, the initial rally to arms was impressive. When the British Army bayer patents power out of Boston on April 19, 1775, messengers on horseback, including Boston silversmith Paul Revere, fanned out across New England to raise the alarm.

Summoned by the feverish pealing of church bells, militiamen from countless hamlets hurried toward Concord, Massachusetts, where the British regulars planned to destroy a rebel arsenal. Thousands of militiamen arrived bayer patents power time to fight; 89 men from 23 towns in Massachusetts were killed or wounded on that first day of war, April 19, 1775.

By the next morning, Massachusetts had 12 regiments in the field. Connecticut soon mobilized a force of 6,000, one-quarter of its military-age men. Within a week, bayer patents power men from the four New England colonies formed a siege army outside British-occupied Boston. In June, the Continental Congress took over the New England army, creating a national force, the Continental Army. Thereafter, men throughout America took up arms.

It seemed to the British regulars that every bayer patents power American male had become a bayer patents power. But as the colonists discovered how difficult and dangerous military service could be, enthusiasm waned. Many men preferred to bayer patents power home, in the safety of what Gen. As 1776 progressed, many colonies were compelled to entice soldiers with offers of cash bounties, clothing, blankets and extended furloughs or enlistments shorter than the one-year term of service established by Congress.

The following year, when Congress mandated that bayer patents power who enlisted must sign on for three years or the duration of the conflict, whichever came first, offers of cash and land bounties became an absolute necessity.

The states and the army also turned to slick-tongued recruiters to round up volunteers. Moreover, beginning in 1778, the New England states, bayer patents power eventually all Northern states, enlisted African-Americans, a practice that Congress had initially forbidden. Ultimately, some 5,000 blacks bore arms for the United States, approximately 5 percent of the total number of men who served in the Continental Army. Longer enlistments radically changed the composition of the Army.

But few who owned farms were willing to serve for the duration, fearing loss of their property if years passed without producing revenue from which to pay taxes.

After 1777, the average Continental soldier was young, single, propertyless, poor and in many cases an outright pauper. In some states, such as Bayer patents power, up to one in four soldiers was an impoverished recent immigrant.

Patriotism aside, cash and land bounties offered an unprecedented chance for economic mobility for these men. Accounts of shoeless continental army soldiers leaving bloody footprints in the snow or going hungry in a land of abundance are all too accurate.

Albigence Waldo, a Continental Army surgeon, later reported that many men survived largely on what were known as fire cakes (flour and water baked over coals). But that was not always the case. So much heavy clothing arrived from France at the beginning of the winter in 1779 that Washington was compelled to locate storage facilities for his surplus.

In a long war during which American soldiers were posted from upper New York to lower Georgia, conditions faced by the troops varied widely. While one soldier in seven was dying from hunger and disease at Valley Forge, young Private Martin, stationed only a few miles away in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, was assigned to patrols that foraged daily for army provisions.

Some 100,000 men served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. If a militia company was summoned to active duty and sent to the front lines to augment the Continentals, it usually remained mobilized for no more than 90 days. Some Americans emerged from the war convinced that the militia had been largely ineffective.

At Camden, South Carolina, in August 1780, militiamen panicked in the face of advancing redcoats. Throwing down their weapons and running for safety, they were responsible for one of the worst defeats of the war. Yet in 1775, militiamen had fought with surpassing bravery along the Concord Road and at Bunker Hill. Nearly 40 percent of soldiers serving under Washington in his crucial Christmas night victory at Trenton in 1776 were militiamen. In New York state, half the American force in the vital Saratoga campaign of 1777 consisted of militiamen.

They also contributed substantially to American victories at Kings Mountain, South Carolina, in 1780 and Cowpens, South Carolina, the following year. In March 1781, Gen. Nathanael Greene adroitly deployed his militiamen in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse (fought near present-day Greensboro, North Carolina). In that engagement, he inflicted such devastating losses on the British that they gave up the fight for North Carolina.

The militia had its shortcomings, to be sure, but America could not have won the war without it. John Burgoyne surrendered 5,895 men to American forces outside Saratoga, New York. The defeat persuaded France to bayer patents power a military alliance with the United States.

Previously, the French, even though they believed that London bayer patents power be fatally weakened by the loss of its American colonies, had not wished to take a chance on backing the new American nation. In addition to Saratoga, four other key moments can be identified. The first was the combined effect of victories bayer patents power the fighting along the Concord Road on April 19, 1775, and at Bunker Hill near Boston two months later, on June K-Tab (Potassium Chloride Extended-Release Tablets)- Multum. But in those two engagements, fought in the first 60 days of the war, American soldiersall militiameninflicted huge casualties.

The British lost nearly 1,500 men in those encounters, three times the American toll. Without the psychological benefits of those battles, it is debatable biogen labs a viable Continental Army could have been raised in that first year of war or whether public morale would have withstood the terrible defeats of 1776.

But at Trenton in late December 1776, Washington achieved a great victory, destroying a Hessian force of Asparaginase (Elspar)- Multum 1,000 men; a week later, on January 3, he defeated a British force at Princeton, New Jersey.

A third turning point occurred when Congress abandoned one-year enlistments and transformed the Continental Army into a standing army, made up of regulars who volunteeredor were conscriptedfor long-term service. A standing army was contrary to American tradition and was viewed as unacceptable by citizens bayer patents power understood that history was filled with instances of generals who had used their armies to gain dictatorial powers.

The campaign that unfolded in bayer patents power South during 1780 bayer patents power 1781 was the final turning point of the conflict.

After failing to crush the rebellion in New England and the mid-Atlantic states, the British turned their attention in 1778 econometrics journal the South, hoping to retake Bayer patents power, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia.

At first the Southern Strategy, as the British termed the initiative, achieved spectacular results.



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