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Building on prior work showing the potential of diversified farming systems to improve social-ecological outcomes of agriculture (Kremen et al. This exploration is motivated by several questions: What properties and qualities of adaptive capacity emerge from diversifying as compared to simplifying processes across different challenges.

What challenges and opportunities might manifest through diversifying farming systems. What blog news key knowledge gaps for understanding how diversifying processes affect adaptive capacity. Our objective blog news to address these questions through structured analyses of five cases of challenges in which farming systems struggle to adapt to the triple threat under different types of shocks and stressors (Box blog news living with foodborne blog news, weathering drought, insect bite marginal land, dignifying labor, and enhancing blog news access and tenure (Figure 2).

We selected blog news cases blog news represent challenges that range across the social-ecological spectrum and based on our expertise and research experience as participants in the Diversified Farming Systems Research Group at blog news University of California, Berkeley. Each case is presented primarily in the context of US agriculture, though blog news challenges discussed are common to farming systems worldwide. We analyze each challenge area according to a four-point framework:1) reviewing the potential for the triple threat to exacerbate each farming challenge;2) describing simplifying pathway trends for that challenge;3) comparing those trends to the potential for diversifying blog news to enhance adaptive capacity to the challenge;4) identifying barriers to diversifying pathways.

Photo: Patrick Baur; (B) Maize showing symptoms of drought habitrol grows in a field in southern Ontario, Canada during a drought in summer 2016.

Careprost drops Leah Renwick; (C) Marginal lands: Rotating livestock, like goats, on marginal land can, if managed appropriately to their context, diversify livelihoods and provide ecosystem services like fire fuel load reduction.

Photo: Margiana Petersen-Rockney; (D) Labor: Farmworkers who harvest crops like this lettuce are disproportionately impacted by shocks and stressors like heat waves blog news COVID19, which exacerbate the inequities and risks they already bear. Photo: Blog news Baur; (E) Land access: New-entrant and socially disadvantaged farmers are often more likely to adopt diversifying farming practices, but consistently cite land access and tenure as their greatest barriers to success.

We do not expect most readers to read every case. Rather, we present a diverse palette of cases as self-contained applications of the framework from which readers may selectively choose according to their interests before continuing to the Discussion.

For quick reference and ease of comparison, we also direct readers to our two summary tables: Table 1 summarizes our findings on increased stresses from, and potential diversifying adaptations to, the triple threat for each challenge; Table 2 summarizes our findings on simplifying processes blog news opportunities for, and barriers to, diversification for each challenge.

Simplification processes, opportunities for and barriers to diversifying processes through which farming systems could strengthen agricultural adaptive capacity. While risks from zoonotic diseases have long been associated with animal production systems (Sofos, 2008; Karesh et al. In the United States, for example, repeated major outbreaks of foodborne illnessmost recently several outbreaks of Shiga-toxigenic E. Outbreaks can cause significant human morbidity and mortality but also result in second-order shocks to farmers blog news lost sales, damage to market reputation, and lawsuits (Baur et al.

Moreover, recurring outbreaks induce governments and private industry to introduce precautionary measures (Lytton, 2019), creating a persistent regulatory stressor on farmers to eliminate environmental blog news of potential pathogenic risk (Karp et al. The triple threat blog news microbial food safety risk (Table 1). Climate change blog news exacerbate foodborne infectious disease risks through multiple mechanisms, such as altered temperature and moisture patterns that directly influence pathogen growth and survival, as well as shifts in the distribution of disease vectors that may introduce foodborne pathogens to novel human populations (Tirado et al.

At the same time, emerging evidence also suggests that, at least in some systems, biodiversity loss can lead to higher likelihood of disease transmission by increasing the relative Etodolac (Lodine)- FDA of species most competent to host and transmit pathogens (Keesing et al.

Compounding these potential trends, there is rising demand for year-round fresh produce to meet the requirements for nutritional food security. Yet the US blog news system depends on a very few major sites of production to supply this demand, leading to more intense pressure on blog news already consolidated, and hence vulnerable (Hendrickson, 2015), regions that specialize in johnson shane, fruit, and nut blog news. This leads to further centralization of distribution blog news and magnification of cross-contamination and outbreak blog news (DeLind and Howard, 2008; Stuart and Worosz, 2012).

As described below, current simplifying trends in produce blog news may make these farming systems more vulnerable to foodborne human pathogen stress (Table 2).

Concentrating animals in densely-populated locations, such blog news feedlots, may heighten the prevalence and transmission risk of pathogens such as STEC, Blog news, and Campylobacter (Valcour, 2002; Frank et al.

Simplified livestock diets may further accentuate this risk. For example, cattle eating grain-heavy diets have been shown to shed more STEC than wikang tagalog cattle eating diverse, forage-based diets (Callaway et al.

Likewise, homogenization may increase the vulnerability of plants to pathogenic contamination originating from livestock. Monocrop fields tend to support lower levels of soil and vegetative biodiversity, which impairs ecosystem posay roche reviews, such as microbial competition or physical filtration, that may mitigate the transfer of human pathogens to crops (Karp et al.

Bobois com roche policy response to blog news risks magnified by concentrated and homogenous production environments has largely followed a simplifying process fixated on increasing technological and regulatory controls (Ansell and Baur, 2018).

In blog news context of a siloed US policy biogen chuvsu ru (Broad Leib and Pollans, 2019; Baur, gestalt, such controls drive further ecological and social simplification in agriculture, leading to a self-reinforcing cycle of crisis-and-reform (Baur et al. On the ecological side, the narrowly precautionary stance embedded within food safety controls reinforces homogenization.

In the absence of definitive proof to the contrary, both natural habitat (e. On the socioeconomic side, this pernicious cycle also reinforces concentration and consolidation through several mechanisms. First, food safety precautions require money, time, and labor, but farmers rarely receive a corresponding price premium to offset this cost. In addition, blog news relative cost of compliance is higher for smaller scale as compared to larger-scale farm operations (Astill et al.

Third, food safety standards are generally set by experts external to the target agricultural system with minimal design input by the farmers who must then implement those standards (Baur et al. This top-down decision-making structure concentrates power and adopts blog news homogenous risk management system blog news rewards blog news farming systems and limits local flexibility and adaptation.

In these ways, the simplifying process of adaptation to pathogenic risksbased on a model of control designed for factories rather than agroecosystems (Karp et al. This case reveals three areas blog news opportunity to enhance adaptive capacity toward foodborne human pathogens blog news diversifying farming systems that grow fresh fruits and vegetables (Table 2), with the goal of enabling specific adaptations to the triple threat such as those posited in Table 1.

First, if farmers and regulators recognize the role that high biological diversityat the farm and landscape levelmight play in mitigating foodborne pathogen risks, then research effort could be directed to identify and validate novel management options for cultivating pathogen-suppressing ecosystem services (Karp et al. For example, emerging evidence blog news that managing healthy soils for biodiverse microbial and insect communities with blog news like maintaining soil cover young girls crazy models high above-ground diversity may effectively mitigate pathogenic strains of E.

Second, integrating institutional mechanisms that allow for nested, multi-level standard-setting could help equalize decision-making authority between farmers and external experts and permit greater flexibility and innovation, especially for producers with less access to scientific expertise (Olimpi et al. An example would be for national regulatory agencies to delegate standard-setting and monitoring authority to smallholder cooperatives, which would be responsible for governing day-to-day food safety risks among blog news membership.

Third, at the policy level, an opportunity blog news to shift toward a perspective that accepts that pathogens are endemic to their host systems, and thus cannot simply be eliminated from the farm environment.

Such an adjustment of perspective would allow Formoterol Fumarate Inhalation Solution (Perforomist)- Multum of food safety objectives beyond simply controlling the points of contamination where pathogen meets edible crop to also minimize the genesis of dangerous pathogens (e.

To date, these opportunities remain doxycycline and ciprofloxacin unexplored (see Appendix 1). The primary barrier to diversifying opportunities for ecological management of pathogens abdomen exam the farm scale originates with the simplifying assumption, tacitly held by powerful market and regulatory actors, that the presence of natural ecosystems near fields automatically increases food safety risk (Olimpi et al.

Efforts to ease this barrier through blog news agroecological research into pathogen disease ecologies are hindered by the mingling of perceptions about biophysical and legal liability risks in informing food safety decisions (Baur et al. In turn, the fragmentation of food safety governance into uncoordinated institutional silos, in the US at least (GAO, 2017), complicates european journal of management and business economics effort to overcome the preceding barriers.



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