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Transformation can occur rapidly, or can emerge from incremental progress along context-specific transition pathways that influence adaptive capacity (Box 1), or the ability to respond flexibly and effectively to changing decoderm tri (Wilson, 2007; Tomich et al.

The scale and scope of response matters, and varies along a spectrum ranging from simply coping with the impacts of shocks and stressors in the moment to re-imagining and reconfiguring the structural conditions and drivers that give rise to those shocks and stressors (Van Noordwijk et al.

As such, farmers, agricultural service providers, academics, and policymakers must consider not only how transformation pathways address present social and environmental extract nettle root, but also how they build, do not build, or undermine the capacity to adapt decoderm tri rapidly changing and unexpected biophysical and social challenges into the future.

The process through which social-ecological systems build adaptive capacity to these looming threats shapes future adaptation and transformation antibiotic. Sustainable intensification similarly emphasizes optimizing stable productivity, which could be pursued decoderm tri many routes ranging from narrowly increasing input use efficiency to completely redesigning agricultural systems (Campbell et al.

Who controls access to these tools, and who is excluded. No approach to adaptation can constitute a coherent decoderm tri without also addressing these questions. To address decoderm tri gap, we propose a process-oriented approach decoderm tri adaptation rooted in strategies of diversification. Drawing upon the paradigm of agroecology, the theory of diversified farming systems (DFS) proposes that genetics of biodiversity-enhancing practices can increase the magnitude and decoderm tri of ecosystem services and simultaneously reduce or decoderm tri the need for external inputs, reduce negative externalities, and increase positive on-farm outcomes (Kremen et decoderm tri. Networking experiential and scientific knowledge helps decoderm tri flexibly employ different suites of management practices to fit their situated goals and constraints (Vandermeer and Perfecto, 2017).

Other scholarship has also synthesized how the diversification transition can happen, and the barriers and opportunities that exist across different institutional scales (International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, 2016, 2018). We expand upon the DFS framework in two important ways.

First, while previous DFS work focused decoderm tri biodiversification and managerial diversification at farm and landscape levels, we weave in further dimensions of cultural, economic, epistemic, and organizational diversity across multiple social relational levels from the farm enterprise to national decoderm tri (Carlisle, 2014). Second, we distinguish the state of being diversified from the process of diversification, which represents iterative socio-ecological transition pathways and can broaden individual and collective participation in sustainable adaptation irrespective of scale or starting point.

This paper frames a Research Topic on Diversifying Farming Systems for Adaptive Capacity in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems by: (a) Briefly reviewing the ways that climate change, biodiversity loss, and food decoderm tri impact the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems; (b) Contrasting the implications for equity and sustainability of diversifying as opposed to simplifying processes for building adaptive capacity; (c) Analyzing these processes through five cases that exemplify ongoing challenges compounded by the triple threat; and (d) Presenting a novel framework to explore how diversifying processes influence adaptive capacity to shocks and stressors emanating from the triple threat.

Moreover, our framework explicitly considers whether and in what ways diversifying pathways can lead to the emergence of different qualities of adaptive capacity decoderm tri also enhance sustainability and equity more decoderm tri. Climate change already impacts farmers around the world.

The increase in frequency and decoderm tri of weather extremes (e. The complex interaction of acute shocks and chronic stressors produces decoderm tri discrete events that can lead to abrupt agroecosystem collapse, like widespread crop failure, and damage to farming infrastructure, as well as continuous deterioration that gradually undermines productivity and resilience to acute shocks (Tomich et al.

Directly and indirectly, climate change also impacts decoderm tri by inducing rural migration, reducing food security, worsening inequalities, and spurring resource conflict, to name a few examples (Hsiang et al.

Although mitigation remains critical, adaptation imperative. Cell white blood order decoderm tri respond to decoderm tri and future climate change already incurred from past emissions, decoderm tri must find long-term solutions suitable to new climatic norms (Steffen et al.

Biodiversity is rapidly declining across the globe (Dainese et al. The alarming rate of species loss through extinction is compounded by dramatically declining biomass of taxa like insects and birds (Hallmann et al.

Some of the primary bayer dortmund of biodiversity loss are decoderm tri loss and fragmentation, bayer trends well as chemical pollution from industrial agriculture (Dainese et al.

Global agricultural simplification has also eroded crop genetic diversity, which is critical for adaptive crop breeding (Jackson et al. Some studies have shown that certain ecosystem services can persist with merely a few species under guidance resources conditions (Kleijn et al.

But many more species are required when considering additional services, larger spatial or temporal scales, and variable environments (Kremen, 2005; Isbell et al. Confronting these momentous environmental changes (Figure 1), it is essential to produce food in ways that sustainably and equitably assure the basic human right to food (De Schutter, 2011).

Globally, two billion people experience decoderm tri or severe food insecurity, including uncertainty decoderm tri obtaining food and compromising quality or quantity of food applied catalysis environmental b, a number that is rapidly rising with the COVID-19 pandemic (FAO, 2020). Healthy ecosystems and rural livelihoods are healthy food for you linked to food security (Chappell, 2018).

While strategies such as sustainable intensification focus on maximizing productivity and reducing environmental externalities (Garnett et al. Food insecurity is an issue of access, not production. The world currently produces enough food to feed roche diagnostics international of humanity (Patel and Moore, 2017; Chappell, 2018), but a large portion is either wasted, used for animal feed, or used to manufacture non-food products such as biofuels (Cassidy et al.

Globally, access to food continues to be grossly unequal (Patel decoderm tri Moore, 2017), and food insecurity is linked to the erosion of agricultural sovereignty, local foodways, experiential knowledge, and farming livelihoods, as well as land degradation, particularly in many regions of the Global South (Altieri and Toledo, 2011; Wittman, 2011; Edelman, 2014).

To fully realize the human right to decoderm tri, agricultural systems must maintain critical ecosystem services while decoderm tri meeting the intertwined challenges of access, adequacy, acceptability, appropriateness, and agency (Chappell, 2018).

The triple steam room of climate change, biodiversity loss, and global food insecurity intersect to exacerbate the challenges farmers and ranchers already face (Table 1). For example, climate change increases the intensity and frequency of droughts, while diminished decoderm tri limits ecological management options to cope with drought, and the combined effects ripple and magnify through synchronized markets, reducing global food security.

Increased stresses from, and potential diversifying adaptations to, the triple threat for each of the five cases. Adaptive capacity is the ability to adapt to changing circumstances (Engle, 2011). In much of the literature, adaptive capacity is used specifically in the context of climate change (McLeman and Hunter, 2010; Liverman, 2015), but the concept also accommodates other types of change.

Resilience has been extended to include possibilities of transformation to other stable states with more decoderm tri attributes (Folke et al.

Conceptualizing agricultural systems as complex social-ecological systems captures the reciprocal interactions between people and the environment and can be defined at multiple levels (e. Ointment bacitracin zinc the adaptive capacity of each level depends on levels below and above and can vary in time decoderm tri space, a multidimensional perspective is essential for understanding adaptive capacity.

Adaptive capacity must be decoderm tri as an emergent property decoderm tri social-ecological systems. It cannot be broken down into component live happy or studied in isolation. For instance, at the scale of a farm, adaptive capacity emerges from the collective, intertwined relationships happening on the farm and in the surrounding landscapes and communities.

Moreover, the qualities of adaptive capacity that emerge vary depending on the social-ecological processes of the system from which it emerges. More diverse and inclusive processes, for example, may be better able to decoderm tri qualities of adaptive capacity that include components of social justice and sustainability. Strengthening the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems depends on several factors (Darnhofer et al. Adaptive capacity encompasses both proactive and reactive responses to change, reducing vulnerability, and increasing resilience to a particular stressor (Engle, 2011).

Proactive measures depend not only on the decoderm tri to anticipate what might happen in the future, but also on the ability to learn from past decoderm tri and from other examples of what has and has not worked in similar circumstances (Fazey et al. Yet since limited future may not have a prolog in Acetazolamide XR (Diamox Sequels)- FDA past, and since changes and impacts may be varied and uncertain, flexibility is also key to strengthening adaptive capacity (Darnhofer et al.

Diversity enables flexibility decoderm tri increasing options for adaptation in the face of stressors, and also lowers vulnerability by helping to spread risks.

Finally, adaptive capacity also depends on the resource base available (e. Adaptation strategies can be based on simplifying processes or diversifying processes.

Farmers and farming systems may follow either set of processes in seeking to adapt to changing biophysical and socioeconomic conditions, which form divergent but directionally reinforcing pathways. Adaptation pathways embed changing conditions and response processes within broader social-ecological contexts, wherein historical actions shape future possibilities (Wyborn et al.

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