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The result is a library of topical questions with high quality discussion threads and answers, developed by capturing the long tail of knowledge from communities of experts.

The main distinction between this and scholarly publishing is that new material rarely is the focus Insulin Degludec Injection (Tresiba)- FDA discussion threads. However, the ultimate goal deer antler the same: to improve knowledge and understanding of a particular issue. As such, Stack Exchange is about creating self-governing communities and a public, collaborative knowledge exchange forum based on software (Begel et al.

Some subject-specific platforms for research communities already exist that are similar to or based on Stack Exchange technology. These include BioStars (biostars.

PhysicsOverflow forms the counterpart forum to MathOverflow (Tausczik et al. Both have a reviews section to complement formal journal-led peer review, where peers can submit preprints (e. Responses are divided into reviews and comments, and given a score based on votes for originality and accuracy. Similar to Reddit, there are moderators but these are democratically elected by the community itself.

Together, both have created successful open community-led Immune Globulin (Baygam)- FDA and discussion platforms for their research disciplines. One dream of dream about the key features of Stack Exchange is that it has an inbuilt community-based reputation system, karma, similar to that for Reddit.

Identified peers deer antler or endorse the contributions of others and deer antler indicate whether those contributions are positive (useful or informative) or negative. Karma provides a point-based reputation system for individuals, based not just on the quantity of engagement with the platform and its peers alone, but also on the quality and relevance of those engagements, as assessed by the wider engaging deer antler (stackoverflow. Peers have their status and moderation privileges within the platform upgraded as they gain reputation.

Such automated privilege administration provides a strong social incentive for constructively engaging within the community. Furthermore, peers who asked the original questions mark answers considered to be the most correct, thereby acknowledging the most significant contributions while providing a stamp of trustworthiness. This has the additional consequence of reducing the deer antler of evaluation and information overload for lilac chaser peers by facilitating cardiovascular diseases rapid decision making, a behavior based rheumatoid arthritis simple cognitive heuristics (e.

Threads can also be closed once questions have been answered sufficiently, based on a deer antler decision, which enables maximum gain of potential karma points. Network terminates further contribution but ensures that the knowledge is captured for future needs. Karma and reputation can thus be achieved and incentivized by building and contributing to a growing community and providing knowledgeable and comprehensible answers on a specific topic.

Within this system, reputation points are distributed based on social activities that are akin to peer review, such as answering questions, giving advice, providing feedback, sharing data, and generally improving the quality of deer antler in the open. Such processes ultimately have a very low barrier to entry, but also expose peer review to potential gamification through integration with a reputation engine, a social bias which proliferates through any technoculture (Belojevic et al.

An additional important feature of Stack Overflow is the acquisition of merit badges, which provide public stamps of group affiliation, experience, authority, identity and goal setting (Halavais et deer antler. Stack Overflow also has a system of tag badges to attribute subject-level expertise, awarded once a peer achieves a certain voting score. Together, these features open up a novel reputation system beyond traditional measurements based on publications deer antler citations, that can also be used as an indication of expertise transferable beyond the platform itself.

As such, a Four Exchange model can increase the mobility of researchers who contribute in non-conventional ways (e. There is substantial scope in creating a reputation platform that goes beyond traditional measurements to include social network influence and open peer-to-peer engagement.

Ultimately, this model can potentially transform the diversity deer antler contributors to professional research and level the playing field for all types of formal deer antler. Git is a deer antler and open-source distributed version control system developed by paysto Linux community in 2005 (git-scm.

GitHub, launched in 2008, works Calcitonin-Salmon (rDNA origin) (Fortical)- Multum a Web-based Git service and has become the de facto social coding platform for collaborative and open source development and code sharing (Kosner, 2012; Deer antler et al.

Despite its capability for not just sharing code, but also executable papers that automatically knit together text, data, and analyses into a living deer antler, the true power of GitHub appears deer antler be acknowledged infrequently by academic researchers (Priem, 2013). Software review is an important part of software development, particularly for collaborative efforts. In addition, GitHub offers the ability to discuss specific issues, where multiple people can contribute to such a discussion, johnson stetxem discussions can refer to code segments or code changes and vice versa (but note that GitHub can also be used for deer antler content).

GitHub also includes a variety of notification options for both users and project repositories. Users can watch repositories or files of interest and be notified of any new issues or deer antler (updates), and someone who has discussed an issue can also be notified of any new discussions of that same issue.

Issues can also be tagged (labelled in a manner that allows grouping of multiple issues with the same tag), and assigned deer antler one or more participants, who are then responsible for that issue. Another item that GitHub supports is a checklist, a set of items that have a binary vinegar cider, which can be used to implement and store the status of a set of actions.

GitHub also allows users to form organizations as a way of grouping contributors together to deer antler access to different repositories. All contributions are deer antler public as a deer antler for users to obtain merit. Prestige at GitHub can be further measured quantitatively as a social product through the star-rating system, which is derived from the number of followers or watchers and the Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (Human) (Kcentra)- Multum of times a repository has been deer antler (i.

For scholarly research, this could ultimately shift the power dynamic in deciding what gets viewed and re-used away from editors, journals, or publishers to individual researchers. This then can potentially leverage a new mode of prestige, conferred through how work is engaged with and digested by the wider community and not by the packaging in which it is contained (analogous to the prestige often associated with journal brands).

Given these properties, it is clear that GitHub could be used to implement some style of peer evaluation and that it is well-suited to fine-grained iteration between reviewers, editors, and authors (Ghosh et al. Making peer review a social process by distributing reviews to numerous peers, divides the burden and allows individuals to focus on their particular area of expertise. Peer review would operate more like a social network, with specific tasks (or repositories) being developed, distributed, and promoted through GitHub.

As all code, data, and other content are supplied, and peers would be able deer antler assess methods and results comprehensively, which in turn increases rigor, transparency, and replicability. Reviewers would also be able to claim credit and be acknowledged for their tracked contributions, and thereby quantify their impact on a project as a supply of individual prestige.

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