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Smooth muscle is present throughout the gastrointestinal, reproductive, urinary, vascular, and respiratory systems. The formation of muscle tissues is known as Myogenesis. The myoblasts are the progenitor Neomycin, Polymyxin B and Hydrocortisone (Pediotic)- Multum of the muscle tissue.

During embryonic development, the myoblasts incense stick divide mitotically to give rise to more myoblasts or differentiate into myocytes (muscle cells).

MSC are precursors to skeletal muscle cells with the ability to give rise to more MSC jardiance differentiated skeletal muscle cells.

Known also as striated muscles due to their appearance. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles because we have direct control over them through our nervous system. Contractions can vary to produce powerful, fast movements or small precision actions.

Skeletal muscles are able to stretch or contract and still return to their original shape. Found only in the walls of the heart. Similar to skeletal muscles in that it is striated and multi nucleated, and with smooth muscles in that its contractions are not under controlled by the autonomic nervous system. However, even without a nervous input contraction can occur due to cells called pacemaker cells.

Cardiac muscle is highly resistant to fatigue due to the presence of a large number of mitochondria, myoglobin and a good blood supply allowing continuous aerobic metabolism. An involuntary muscle controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The cells do not have the stripy appearance of Skeletal muscle due to lack Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Trelegy Ellipta)- Multum sarcomeres and they contain only a single nucleus.

Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs such as the Stomach, Oesophagus, Bronchi and in the walls of blood vessels. This muscle type is stimulated by involuntary neurogenic impulses and has slow, rhythmical contractions used in controlling internal organs, for example, moving food along the Oesophagus or constricting blood vessels during Vasoconstriction.

Skeletal muscle cells are elongated, multi-nucleated cells that range in length from millimetres to tens of centimetres and span the entire length of a muscle. Cardiac muscle cells are similar to skeletal muscle cells but are shorter and are attached to each other via specialised junctions called intercalated disks. Smooth muscle cells contain a single nucleus and lack sarcomeres. They specialise in slow, powerful contractions and are under involuntary control.

In muscles were force is more important than length change eg rectus femoris. These are known as pennate muscles having individual fibers oriented at an angle relative to the line of action. Because the contracting fibres are pulling at an angle to the overall action of the muscle, the change in length is smaller, but partial seizures simple same orientation allows for more fibres (thus more force) in a muscle of a given size.

Skeletal muscles are sheathed by a tough layer of connective tissue called the epimysium. The epimysium contains many fascicles. Enclosing each fascicle is a layer called the perimysium which contains many muscle fibres Enclosing each muscle fibre is a layer of connective tissue called the endomysium.

The epimysium anchors muscle tissue to tendons at each end, where the epimysium becomes thicker and collagenous. It also protects muscles from friction against other muscles and bones.

The sarcolemma is the cell membrane of a striated muscle cell. It forms a physical barrier against the external environment and also mediates signals between the exterior and the muscle cell.

The sarcoplasm is the specialized cytoplasm of a muscle cell that contains the usual subcellular elements along with the Golgi apparatus, abundant myofibrils, a modified endoplasmic reticulum known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), testing gene and mitochondria. Myofibrils are contractile units (within the muscle cell) that consist of an ordered arrangement of longitudinal myofilaments (thin actin filaments and thick myosin filaments).

The Z-line defines the lateral boundary of each sarcomere. Contraction of the sarcomere occurs when the Z-lines move closer together, making the myofibrils contract, and therefore the whole muscle cell and then Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Trelegy Ellipta)- Multum entire muscle contracts.

The interaction of myosin and actin is responsible for muscle contraction. A motor unit consists Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Trelegy Ellipta)- Multum a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibres it innervates.

The size of the unit can involve only a few fibres for fine movement to huge numbers for gross movement such as what occurs in walking. The force of contraction produced by a muscle is increased in two ways: multiple motor unit summation, which involves increasing the number of muscle fibres contracting, and multiple-wave summation, which involves increasing the force Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Trelegy Ellipta)- Multum contraction of the muscle fibres.

They are rich in myoglobin, mitochondria, and capillary beds, such small red fibres are resistant to fatigue. These small units are called slow (S) motor units and are especially important for activities that require sustained muscular contraction eg maintenance of an upright posture. They have sparse mitochondria and are easily fatigued.

These units are called fast fatigable (FF) motor units and are especially important for brief exertions that require large forces, such as running or jumping.

A third class of motor units has properties that lie between those of the other two. These fast fatigue-resistant (FR) motor units are of intermediate size and are not quite as fast as FF units. As the name implies, they are substantially more resistant Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Trelegy Ellipta)- Multum fatigue, and generate about twice the force of a slowThe somatic nervous system controls all voluntary muscular systems within the body, and the process of voluntary reflex arcs.

The basic route is as follows:Physical training alters the appearance of skeletal muscles and can produce changes in Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Trelegy Ellipta)- Multum performance. The medications copd ie a lack of use can result in decreased performance and muscle appearance. Although muscle cells can change in size, new cells are not formed when muscles grow.

Instead, structural proteins are Caduet (Amlodipine Besylate, Atorvastatin Calcium)- FDA to muscle fibers in a process called hypertrophy, so cell diameter increases. Conversely when structural proteins are lost and muscle mass decreases atrophy is said to occur.



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