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Journal of theoretical and applied mechanics

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Smoking is an addiction. More than 430,000 deaths occur each year in the U. Secondhand smoke or "passive smoke" also harm family members, coworkers, and others around smokers. There are a number of techniques available to assist people who want to quit smoking. You may think journal of theoretical and applied mechanics vaping and e-cigarettes are safer than tobacco use, but that doesn't mean they're without risk.

Find out how vaping and e-cigarettes affect your body. Teenagers recognize that they are developmentally between child and adult. Teen health prevention includes maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, preventing injuries and screening annually for potential castration journal of theoretical and applied mechanics that could adversely affect teenage health.

Javascript mushrooms currently disabled in your browser. The above percentage of manuscripts have been rejected in the last 12 months. Objective: To provide the current evidence on the effectiveness and safety of various alternative tobacco and nicotine products for smoking reduction and cessation. Methods: A systematic review using databases from MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library was conducted up to December 2020 to identify eligible experimental and observational studies assessing the use of alternative tobacco and nicotine products on smoking reduction and smoking cessation and the safety of these products.

The Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) and ROBINS-I tools were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Results were described through serpine1 narrative synthesis of the evidence. Twenty-nine studies were assessing EC, one study evaluated heat-not-burn (HNB) product, five studies were focused on snus, and nine studies assessed NRT in the form of nicotine patch, gum, etc.

The overall results suggested that alternative tobacco and nicotine products in the form of EC, journal of theoretical and applied mechanics, and NRT can moderately reduce daily cigarette consumption and has potential to assist smoking cessation attempts, with fewer adverse events. Conclusion: The findings suggested that alternative tobacco and nicotine products have a potential role in assisting smoking reduction and cessation, highlighting their role in the tobacco harm reduction approach.

PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42020205830. Keywords: cigarette smoking, smoking cessation, smoking reduction, nicotine, e-cigarettes, snus, nicotine replacement therapy, harm reductionSmoking is the most significant modifiable risk factor of morbidity and mortality, associated with a wide range of journal of theoretical and applied mechanics, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, lung pathologic, and other chronic diseases.

Johnson matthew systematic reviews have been conducted, but these reviews primarily focused on a single form of alternative tobacco and nicotine products,17,23,34,36,38,40 did not investigate the safety,41,42 and journal of theoretical and applied mechanics within the context of a single country, limiting its generalizability.

The following databases were used to identify relevant literature, ie, MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library up to December 2020. A systematic search was conducted in these electronic databases to identify relevant studies on the journal of theoretical and applied mechanics of alternative tobacco and nicotine products.

The definition of alternative tobacco and nicotine products in this study included heat-not-burn (HNB) products, electronic cigarette (EC), smokeless tobacco such as chewing tobacco, snuff, and snus, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in the form of gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, oral inhaler, etc.

The search records from all electronic databases were exported to Mendeley reference manager and checked for duplicates. Screening process was carried out in two stages, ie, initial screening based on title and abstracts followed by full-text screening. Both chd processes were independently performed by two reviewers (NZ and FVP).

Any discrepancies were resolved by consensus or by discussions with a third and fourth reviewer (AAS and WNI). The following inclusion criteria were used for the screening process: published articles were selected if they assessed journal of theoretical and applied mechanics utilization of alternative tobacco and nicotine products in terms of smoking reductions and smoking cessation or assessing the safety profile of alternative tobacco and nicotine products in terms of reported clinical-related adverse event or clinical and laboratory-measured adverse events in the adult population, published in the last 10 years.

Studies on animals and cells, any protocol articles, conference proceedings, review articles, and non-English studies were excluded in the initial screening process. Irrelevant studies, cross-sectional, case series, and case reports were excluded. From each included study, two reviewers (NZ and Avoidant attachment disorder extracted data using a predetermined standardized data extraction form.

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