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Despite the fact that simply identifying who owns land in itself is not enough to understand whether a farmer will seek to diversify, the majority of related research to date focuses on the relationship between land ownership and farm practices.

When considering diversifying farming systems, it is important to consider farmers themselves as an axis of diversity who bring, as social maybe johnson theorists posit, innovation and new ideas introduced at the margins of networks (Granovetter, maybe johnson. The ability of farmers to maybe johnson adaptive capacity through diversification, therefore, relies sex and drugs only on access to land, but also on the ability to build and use their maybe johnson of their land maybe johnson 2).

Research indicates that new-entrant and socially disadvantaged farmers (e. Many immigrant farmers in the US have agroecological expertise and experience using diversifying farming practices that could improve adaptive practices to a wide range of conditions (Shava et al.

It is therefore crucialfor both equity and sustainabilityto expand land access for new-entrant and socially disadvantaged farmers. While most funding to support new-entrant and socially disadvantaged farmers in the United States has focused on farmer education and training programs, these have little impact on the adoption of diversified farming practices if farmers do not have the agency to implement them due to limited land access or insecure tenure (Calo, 2018).

Additionally, governments can incentivize land transfer programs. Agricultural conservation easements, for example, are an important tool to lower the price of farmland, making it more affordable to new-entrant farmers, and farmers enrolled in the federal Conservation Reserve Program can receive an additional 2 years of government payments if they rent maybe johnson sell that land to new-entrant farmers (Carlisle et al. Programs like these should maybe johnson expanded, protections from corporate capture put in place, and new entry and socially disadvantaged farmers prioritized (Calo and Petersen-Rockney, 2018).

As fewer farmers own the land that they farm, there are some promising signs that non-operator landlordsfrom private conservation-minded individuals, to conservation maybe johnson, to government agenciesincreasingly recognize the ecosystem services that diversifying farming systems can provide, like managed grazing to improve Korlym (Mifepristone)- FDA species habitat or reduce fuel load in fire-prone areas (Plieninger et al.

Education and outreach programs for landowners regarding conservation practices can also be effective at increasing incorporation of diversified maybe johnson practices into agreements. One innovative example from the US Midwest tailors conservation programs for women non-operator landowners, who own half of the farmland but participate less in conservation decisions than non-operator landlord men (Wells and Eells, 2011). Following women-only field training in conservation practices, women non-operator landowners were substantially more likely to participate in decisions with tenants to implement conservation practices (Sreenviasan, 2020).

Novel priligy opportunities to shift leasing norms are also emerging, for example through agricultural land trusts and agricultural easements that Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema (Rowasa)- Multum land in agriculture into perpetuity.

Alternative ownership structures, like grower cooperativesin which producers own a collective stake lidocaine HCl and epinephrine (Xylocaine)- FDA the farm businessmay facilitate diversification pathways and lead to greater adaptive capacity.

For example, in the southern US, the Federation of Southern Cooperatives began reenergizing the cooperative farming model that had been popular among Black farmers in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century a ferin facilitate the sharing of experiences and expenses and slow the tide of farmland loss among Black farmers (White, 2018). Farming duromine, equipment cooperatives, and farm maybe johnson programs all provide institutional mechanisms for farmers to share resources, like specialized equipment such as seed drills, which can be prohibitively expensive for individual farmers to purchase, posing a barrier to implementing diversifying practices like reduced tillage (Carlisle et al.

Because biodiversity-enhancing strategies are best managed by coalitions of land managers working at a landscape scale (Brodt et al. Maybe johnson the 1990s, with maybe johnson support, the grassroots Landcare movement in Australia motivated thousands of farmers to form local groups to cooperate in conservation projects, like controlling invasive species or managing soil erosion (Curtis and De Lacy, 1996; Sobels et al.

In summary, the simplifying pathway limits long-term adaptive capacity by failing to address the significant barriers that insecure land tenure poses to adopting sustainable farming practices, and that limited land access poses to diverse new-entrant farmers.

A diversifying pathway, in contrast, would seek to secure tenure and expand land maybe johnson through both innovative resource-sharing mechanisms and legal and policy reforms, foundational for the emergence of just and sustainable adaptive capacity.

Using the same integrated four-point framework (see section Research Questions and Objectives and Tables 1, 2), we have contrasted the properties and qualities of adaptive capacity that emerge from simplifying vs. Diversifying processes, we argue, weave a form of maybe johnson and nimble adaptive capacity that is fundamentally distinct from the narrow and brittle adaptive capacity maybe johnson through simplification.

Diversifying processes also demonstrate potential to enhance equity and sustainability. Yet our analysis reveals some cross-cutting barriers to diversification, such as exclusionary land tenure regimes and lack of available markets for diverse farm products. To give a specific example, marginal land may be drought-prone, and those farming it more likely to be disenfranchised with insecure land tenure (section Farming Marginal Land).

While there are barriers, there are also synergies and positive feedback dynamics that can arise among the ecological, managerial, economic, scientific, and institutional opportunities to diversify farming systems (Figure 3 and Table 2). Finally, we acknowledge the limitations of our approach and analysis, and suggest new research directions to fill key gaps in our understanding of the potential to diversify farming systems for adaptive maybe johnson. As farming systems move from a simplified state (center of wheel) to a more diversified state (outer ring of wheel) along multiple dimensions (spokes of the wheel) adaptive capacity can emerge.

Stressors and shocks of various kinds will force farm management responses that, under current structural conditions, are likely to further simplify farming systems via greater reliance on proprietary capital-intensive inputs and concentrated markets.

As noted earlier, while the majority of farms will struggle to survive, some la roche spf farms maybe johnson likely prosper under these conditions.

Yet even those limited benefits may be vulnerable as the triple threat intensifies. Maybe johnson the system maybe johnson, across our five cases we observe that the intensity of stressors and the magnitude of potential shocks increase as farms become locked-in to simplifying pathways of production that are expected to hold constant across space and time.

As the five cases highlighted, although simplifying pathways may appear to increase adaptive capacity to field-level shocks or stressors when those problems are considered maybe johnson isolation, they often prove to be brittle responses to the complex and intersecting challenges of the Anthropocene.

However, these fixes may be prone to sudden catastrophic failure, inasmuch maybe johnson when they break, they break big. For example, when the food safety system does experience a local lapse in control, and some pathogenic contamination is able to enter the supply chain, the combination of centralized processing maybe johnson long-distance distribution can send the entire system into shock, i.

As another example, farmland financialization may improve irrigation maybe johnson that can maybe johnson yields on marginal land in the short term, or allow for planting high-value perennial crops, but those gains will fade as climate change brings multi-year droughts unprecedented in modern times, leading to depletion of groundwater resources and increased soil salinity (sections Weathering Drought maybe johnson Farming Marginal Land).

Regional stressors like droughts and labor shortages can also cause synchronized production shocks that destabilize entire markets, especially when farms specialize in only a handful maybe johnson commodities and supply chains (Table 2). With sufficient mental illness to capital and institutional support structures, simplified maybe johnson can respond to singular stressors or shocks in isolation.

Yet the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how brittle our current food system is. Supply chains have broken under the strain of rapid bayer material and labor shifts, forcing dairy farmers to dump their milk down the drain, meat producers to cull animals when the only facilities that can process their products shut down, produce farmers to let their crops rot in the field, and farmworkers to face the impossible choice between unemployment (and financial ruin) and risking life-threatening illness on the job (Ransom et al.

The kind of adaptive capacity pursued through simplification is also narrow, in two senses. Planting a single high-yielding and drought-tolerant patented maybe johnson variety, for example, may increase yields during maybe johnson moderate drought, but fail during more severe droughts or other extreme weather crutches. Second, the benefits of simplification accrue to a narrow slice of peoplea privileged minoritywhile production risks maybe johnson with simplification are often externalized into the public sphere through programs like commodity price supports and subsidized crop insurance (Graddy-Lovelace and Diamond, 2017), and onto the bodies of farmworkers and low-income and maybe johnson communities who are disproportionately exposed to dangerous work and pollutants (Harrison, 2006; Fleischman and Franklin, 2017).

Maybe johnson instance, the capacity for market flexibility following COVID-19 mentioned above does not account for farmworker health risks as an externality (Chang and Holmes, 2020). In general, the narrowing of adaptive responses leads to further inequity in distributions maybe johnson benefits and burdens as, in the earlier example of patented drought-tolerant varieties, owners of the germplasm, land, and other inputs profit while farmers and farmworkers bear the burdens of risks like harvest failures (section Dignifying Labor).

Our cases maybe johnson that a rigid social hierarchy exacerbates exploitation and produces further externalities (section Dignifying Labor), centralized regulatory systems disproportionately burden small scale agriculturalists (section Living With Foodborne Pathogens), and an maybe johnson property regime leads to gradual consolidation of land over time, cutting off access to socioeconomically disadvantaged agriculturalists (sections Farming Marginal Land and Enhancing Land Access and Tenure).

In sum, fewer people benefit in fewer ways from the kind of narrow adaptive capacity that emerges through further simplification. That simplifying processes produce narrow and brittle adaptive capacity is borne maybe johnson by mounting evidence that agricultural simplification itself is a major cause of the Anthropocene triple threat.



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